Spend holidays in China with travel package of 7N/8D. Explore Beijing, Xian, Shanghai with daily breakfast and dinners

China_Shangahi_Beijing_xian_great_wall_Travel_Package

Spend holidays in China with travel package of 7N/8D. Explore Beijing, Xian, Shanghai with daily breakfast and dinners

Market Price
Rs. 1,26,000
Discount
20%
Destination
Destinations: 
Rs. 1,01,000
DEAL CLOSED

Overview

3 Nights Beijing | 2 Nights Xian | 2 Nights Shanghai
Package Cost: 1,01,000 /- (per person on twin share / triple share)

Package Inclusions:

  • 3 Nights accommodation in 3/4* Hotel at Beijing
  • 2 Nights accommodation in 3/4* Hotel at Xian
  • 2 Nights accommodation in 3/4* Hotel at Shanghai
  • Daily Breakfasts
  • Daily Indian Dinners
  • Visit to Tian’anmen Square, Forbidden City & Summer Palace at Beijing
  • Visit to Great Wall of China and Jade Factory at Beijing
  • Visit to Liulichang & Da Shi Lan at Beijing
  • Visit to Museum of Terra Cotta Warriors, Ancient City Wall, Big Wild Goose Pagoda at Xian
  • Visit to Jade Bhudha Temple, Yuyuan Gardens, The Bund, Nanjing Road at Shanghai
  • All airport – hotel – airport transfers
  • Round trip economy class air tickets
  • Airport taxes
  • Visa Fees

Package Exclusions:

  • Applicable Peak Season, Christmas, New year surcharges
  • Items of Personal Nature
  • Travel Insurance
  • Service tax extra @ 3.09% is applicable
  • Anything not mentioned above

Overview

The history of Ancient China runs parallel to that of the rest of the Classical world system. Early hominids arrived in the region by 800000 BP; Paleolithic habitation has been recorded by 50000 BP; and numerous Neolithic settlements are on record by 8000 BC. China was connected to other early civilizations by a dispersed chain of pastoral peoples that transmitted ideas, material goods, and technologies across the vast steppes of Eurasia. The Chinese probably acquired some technologies, such as iron smelting and horse riding from without. Others, such as grain and rice production, bronze manufacture, the horse harness and stirrups, appear to be native inventions and done better and earlier in many respects than they were in the “West.” Although the sinuous link of interconnectivity furnished by pastoral peoples played an important and sustained role in the development of Chinese civilization, the fact remains that Chinese society emerged largely in isolation. No armies from distant urban societies ever invaded China.

China_Shangahi_Beijing_xian_great_wall_Travel_Package

Environment

The Great plain of northern China extends more than 300,000 sq. kms. The overall region of Classical China embraced coastal lowlands, piedmont tablelands, and highland prairies and mountains extending approximately 5640 miles north – south and 3170 miles east -west. In such an extensive land mass wide variations in climate and environment are to be expected. The heartland was bounded by the Huanghe (Yellow) River in the north and the Yangtze in the south. To the north lay the steppes and desert lands of Mongolia, to the west, mountain ranges and piedmont plateaus descend to the river valleys from the distant Himalayas. To the south the environment turns subtropical and in antiquity was covered in dense rain forest. Between China and the Indian Ocean (southwest) lay numerous impenetrable ridges, the result of repeated folding of the crust of the Asian continent after collision with the Indian subcontinent. To the east the shoreline of China was extensive (ca. 2300 miles), with several deep water ports such as Canton along the southern shore and landmasses such as Korea, Japan, and Taiwan within easy reach.

Further south, much like southern India, malarial forest became a natural barrier to the expansion of urban settlement. Populations remained tribal and dispersed. The density of the rain forests along the coast of Southeast Asia and the vast and remote expanse of this shoreline appears to have obstructed maritime travel between India and China during the Classical era (a voyage from Canton on the Red River to the mouth of the Ganges was at least 4000 miles). Given the limited progress of shipwreck archaeology in this region, the extent of ancient maritime travel in Southeast Asia remains unknown.  Roman coins have been found as far east as Vietnam and southern China, and during the Han dynasty the port of Canton reportedly fostered a mercantile population of foreigners, including Indians, Arabs, and Egyptians. Explicit Chinese textual references to sea voyages between India and China remain few prior to the 5th century AD, when they begin to rise in frequency. Possibly by this date the isolated populations along these coasts had grown sufficiently urban to furnish nodes along a crucial maritime trunk route. This will be discussed in the following chapter.

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Chinese State Formation
The early history of China remains shrouded in legend. According to Chinese mythology, the deity, Pangu, created the universe and placed upon earth a dynasty of sage-emperors who taught the Chinese to communicate, feed, cloth, and build shelter for themselves. These legendary emperors are known as the Xia or Hsia dynasty; they ruled from roughly 2,000 B.C. to 1,600 B.C.  Archaeological investigation at the late Neolithic / early Bronze Age site of Longshan indicates that by the time of this dynasty, several crucial cultural attributes of later Classical Chinese society had emerged.  Prestige goods included jade instruments (imported from western mountains and believed to have life extending properties), lacquered ceramics, ritual vessels, first of ceramic, then of bronze, and silk textile produced from the cocoons of caterpillars that thrived on the leaves of native mulberry trees. High firing pottery kilns led to a superior form of bronze casting by 2000 BC as well as to the development of porcelain or enameled ceramic wares. Although the quality of Chinese fired bronze was vastly superior to the metals produced contemporaneously in the West, cultural isolation meant that bronze continued in use as the principle technology for tools and weapons until the era of the Warring States (480 BC).

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Classical Chinese Philosophies

Confucianism

According to tradition Confucius or Kung Fu Tzu (551-479 BC) was precisely one such example of a displaced learned official. Raised and educated in the feudal state of Lu (modern Shantung), Confucius acquired the reputation of a scholar and made a living teaching young aristocrats and assisting with the administration of noble estates. Although his social origins remain unknown. he possibly descended from a collateral or even an illegitimate line of a local noble family. In the strongly patriarchal and patrilinear system of Zhou-era China, Confucius lacked the necessary means of the nobility, in other words, but somehow managed to receive an education. After failing in numerous attempts to obtain political advancement at Lu, he abandoned his home state in search of opportunities elsewhere, accompanied by a few young men who were most probably the sons of destitute scholars like himself. Together they traveled from the realm of one feudal lord to another in search of employment. After a series of short term posts that inevitably ended in dismissal, Confucius abandoned his hopes of obtaining a career as a professional “courtier” and returned to Lu where he taught until his death. His teachings were heavily influenced by his origins (Lu was a stronghold of Shang traditionalism), his background as an aristocratic outsider, and his experience as an unsuccessful courtier in these highly disturbed times.

China_Shangahi_Beijing_xian_great_wall_Travel_Package

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